Log in

09:36pm 18/05/2005


COMPUTER PROJECT DUE FRIDAY - psaaaa... that doesn't really count!
love you geeks!! MUAH*!
     Read 1 - Post
08:07pm 27/04/2005
mood: stressed

let's play the

go to rutadox.com/wiki site and engage in cooperative learning game!

it's my fav.

no, seriously. go there, look around, and maybe add some stuff. (especially to the bio chpaters 15-16 review part!!!)
04:32pm 04/03/2005
  it's NOT official yet. but it'll be something like this.
i will call EACH AND EVERYONE of YOU ALL!!!

LOCATION: HEINE BROTHERS, or someone's house... not decided yet.. will let you know
TIME: saturday, march 5, 2005 - 12:45-ish p.m.

ummm... what to bring???
EVERYTHING... esp. your biology book. *ahem* most likely, me, allie b., maybe christine, sarah khayat.. will be there. choose to come for your own good. haha. i'll laugh when we get 100%. puahaha. yeah right. love you all.
04:32pm 04/03/2005
  it's NOT official yet. but it'll be something like this.
i will call EACH AND EVERYONE of YOU ALL!!!

LOCATION: HEINE BROTHERS, or someone's house... not decided yet.. will let you know
TIME: saturday, march 5, 2005 - 12:45-ish p.m.

ummm... what to bring???
EVERYTHING... esp. your biology book. *ahem* most likely, me, allie b., maybe christine, sarah khayat.. will be there. choose to come for your own good. haha. i'll laugh when we get 100%. puahaha. yeah right. love you all.
07:15pm 19/02/2005
  1 + 1 = 2  
     Read 2 - Post
i'm so behind in biology. totally forgot about cellular respiration 
02:13pm 18/02/2005
mood: geeky
here's more for me and you to study (ignore the weird bullets or thingys):

KREBS CYLCLE: A CLOSER LOOK – takes place within the mitochondrial matrix; w/ help of enzymes, completes oxidation of organic fuel
~ generates 1 ATP per turn by substrate level phosphorylation
 If oxygen is present, 2 molecules of pyruvate enters mitochondrion and converted to a compound called acetyl CoA (junction between glycolysis & Krebs cycle)
o Pyruvate’s carboxyl group - removed & given off as molecule of O2
o NAD+ (extracted electrons) is transferred  NADH (stores energy)
o Coenzyme A (sulfur-containing compound) attaches to acetate (remaining two-carbon fragment; oxidized)
 Two carbons enter cycle in reduced form of acetate & two different carbons exit as CO2
 acetate joins cycle by enzymatic addition oxaloacetate – subsequent steps decompose citrate back to oxaloacetate, giving of CO2 as “exhaust”
 most of the energy made available is conserved in NADH – each acetate that enters the cycle:
o 3 molecules of NAD+ are reduced to NADH
o [in one oxidative step, e – are transferred to FAD]  FADH2 (reduced form) donates e – to electron transport chain
 There is a step ~ forms ATP molecule directly by substrate-level phosphorylation

 so far – glycolylsis and the Krebs cycle have only produced:
o 4 ATP molecules per glucose molecule by substrate-level phosphorylation
 So far – molecules of NADH and FADH2 accounts for most of the energy extracted from food
 First molecule of electron transport chain is flavoprotein – in the next redox reaction, flavoprotein returns to oxidized form & passes electrons to an iron-sulfur protein – the iron-sulfur protein then passes the electrons to a compound called ubiquinone (not a protein)
o Molst of the remaining electron carriers between ubiquinone and oxygen are proteings called cytochromes [their prosthetic group – nonprotein components essential for catalytic functions of certain enzymes – called a heme group, has four organic rings surrounding a single iron atom
o The last cytochrome of the chain, cytochrome a3 , passes its electrons to oxygen – picks up a pair of hydrogen ions from “aqueous medium” to form water … (For every 2 NADH molecules, one O2 molecule is reduced to two molecules of H2O)
 Another source of e – ~ FADH2, adds e – at a lower energy level than NADH, thus, the electron transport chain provies 1/3 less energy for ATP synthesis when the electron donor is FADH2 than NADH
~ ATP synthase – uses energy of an existing ion gradient to power ATP synthesis – the power source for ATP synthase is a difference in concentration of H+ on opposite sides of the inner mitochondrial membrane. [we can also think of this gradient as a difference in pH since pH is a measure of H+ concentration]
sooo this is what i've got for you guys... i'll get the rest to you guys later... i'm trying sooo 
07:49pm 14/02/2005
  hard to review. so i don't screw up my GPA...

Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy
MST Biology Notes Janet Li 1/24/2005

~ Energy enters most ecosystems in the form of sunlight
~ Cells harvest energy stored in cells:
• W/ help of enzymes – cell degrades molecules rich in potential energy to simpler waste products that have less energy
• Energy taken out of chemical storage can be used to do work; rest is dissipated with heat
~ catabolic process – fermentation – partial degradation of sugars that occurs without the help of oxygen.
~ Cellular respiration – oxygen is consumed as a reactant along with the organic fuel.
• In eukaryotic cells, mitochondria houses metabolic equipment for ^.
• Food is fuel for respiration – the exhaust is carbon dioxide and water:
Organic + Oxygen  Carbon + Water + Energy
compounds dioxide
~ carbohydrates, fats, and proteins call be processed & consumed as fuel. Traditional to track down degradation of glucose (C6H12O6) to learn steps of cellular respiration:
C6H12O6 + 6 CO2  6 CO2 + 6 H2O + Energy (ATP + Heat)
~ Catabolic pathways don’t directly move flagella, pump solutes, polymerize monomers…

~ ATP – adenosine triphosphate – central character in cellular energetics.

~ In many chemical reactions, there is a transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another which is call oxidation-reduction reactices, or redox reactions.
• the loss of electrons from one substance is called oxidation
• addition of electrons to another substance is known as reduction
• electron donor – reducing agent
• electron acceptor – oxidizing agent
~ Some reactions change the degree of electron sharing in covalent bonds.
~ Energy must be added to pull an electron away from an atom
~ ^ electronegative the atom, ^ more energy is required to keep electron away from it.
~ electron loses potential energy when it shifts from a less electronegative atom toward a more electronegative one
~By oxidizing glucose, respiration takes energy out of storage; for ATP synthesis
~Electrons extracted from food are usually transferred first to NAD+, then reducing the compound to NADH
~NADH passes these electrons to an electron transport chain. The chain conducts the electrons to oxygen in a series of steps that release energy.
- oxidative phosphorylation uses this energy to make ATP
~ NAD+ traps electrons from glucose and other fuel molecules:
1) dehydrogenases (enzymes) remove a pair of hydrogen atoms from the substrate
2) Removal of two electrons and two protons. The enzyme delivers the two electrons and one proton to NAD+… the other proton is released as a hydrogen ion (H+)
| Dehydrogenase |
H –C – OH + NAD+ ________________________> C = O + NADH + H+
| |

~Electrons lose little potential energy when transferred by dehydrogenases from food to NAD+…. Thus, NADH molecule fromed during repirations represents stored energy
~ In cellular respiration, an electron transport chain breaks the “fall” of electrons in this reaction into a series of smaller steps and stores some of the released energy in a form that can be used to make ATP (the rest of the energy is released as heat).
- the chain consists of mostly proteins built into inner membranes of mitochondria
- small steps until the carrier molecules cascade down the change to oxygen, the terminal electron acceptor.
- What keeps the electrons moving? Each carrier has a greater affinity for electrons than its “uphill” neighbor. At the bottom of the chain is oxygen which has a great affinity for electrons.

> glycolysis – occurs in the cytosol – begins degradation by breaking glucose into two molecules of pyruvate:
- glycolysis – “splitting of sugar” - glucose, a six-carbon sugar is split into two three-carbon sugars.
~ The cell spends ATP to phosphorylate the fuel molecules.
- consists of ten steps that occurs right outside of mitochondria.
- Two molecules of ATP are consumed as glucose is split into two molecules of glyceraldehydes phosphate.
- the conversion of these molecules to pyruvate produces two NADH and four ATP by substrate-level phosphorylation.
~ For each molecule of glucose, glycolysis yields a net gain of two ATP and two NADH

lub you all... hope this is helpful in a way.
08:18pm 04/02/2005
mood: geeky
i wonder if you guyz are having fun at the dance.
i sure am having fun with this science fair.
i wonder if there was any sarcasm in that...? haha

you must join:

like right NOW...
so that you can get the latst news of tayshaun prince, fashion, coffee, and random stuff about random people. so JOIN...

and now the mst stuff:
learn about fast fourier transformation... and an equation thang that i don't feel like explain...
1 or -1 = maximum negative or positive correlation
0 = no correlation

remember that stuff. you'll learn it in college. have fun!!!
also remember, in a unit circle, r=1 (duh, it's a UNIT circle), and there's a point somehwere on the cirle (x,y)... the sine of alpha (which is the angle created from the point) would equal to y & the cosine of alpha would be x.. the tangent of alpha would be y/x... cotangent would be x/y
if you don't get it, DRAW it!!! haha. aren't you glad you know me????

that's all for today mst children.. i'll be back
muahahahhaahahhaha <3 the mysterious wonders of mst janet
04:32pm 02/02/2005
mood: bored
I believe I am going to have a post-science fair party for all the poor, exhausted, stressed-out, extremely overworked MST children. Theme = ?
Janet had a few suggestions but I don't remember them. *sheepish look*



Possibly Saturday February 26.......what is a good weekend day for you guys?
     Read 1 - Post
07:19pm 31/01/2005
mood: chipper
we seem to be all stressed out right now.
btw, could someone please help me with the isolation & metabolism of mitochnodria worksheet???
haha.. NOT that i need help, i'm just being overwhelmed by science fair.

CHRISTINE - YOU AND I HAVE to get these shirts that say I <3 NY EXCEPT -here's the cool part - they're in CHINESE. we'd be soooo awesome in them.
     Read 5 - Post
SCIENCE FAIR!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! argh 
07:55pm 30/01/2005
mood: crappy
goooodness gracious im sooooooo stressed out right now i could seriously throw the BIGGEST temper tantrum!!!!! WHY IS IT THAT STUPID MST PEOPLE HAVE THE HARDEST FREAKIN STUFF TO DOOO???? well i mean its not HARD... but its so time consuming... im tired tired tired of science fair... blah...
someone come shoot me.

im definitely doing science fair over the summer...
yay i have no life.
     Read 2 - Post
i <3 MST 
05:53pm 30/01/2005
mood: accomplished
i'm going to post, because almost nobody else is (except for janet and chrisitne who are some of the coolest people ever). so i'm not in mst, i'm an honorary member. but i love all the mst kids anyways and i was in mst in middle school so that has to count for something right? i love all my mst nerds because i am an even bigger nerd so its just one big party.

this post was kind of pointless, but i love it anyways.
05:32pm 30/01/2005
  join, people. JOIN.

you're in MST- you should be able to figure this out!!!!
04:01pm 30/01/2005
mood: content
doesn't the biology book just make you brighten up???

that book is actually fun to read. and the pictures are quite awesome.
you just gotta love it!

alright now. 
11:10am 30/01/2005
mood: amused
how to join/post:

go to the main page of this community. (if you're reading this, you're probably already there. click on "info." to join, click on the thing that says, "to join click here."

to post, click on the icon that looks like a pencil.

05:05pm 29/01/2005
mood: excited
want in?? (of course you do.)

1. name
2. age
3. are you in MST at manual?
4. if yes: name your mst-related teachers and submit a picture
4. if not:
a. describe kreb's cycle
b. solve this equation: 8x(squared) + 3x + 77= -97
c. a picture
d. what kind of computer do you have?
     Read 10 - Post
a test. 
04:56pm 29/01/2005
mood: anxious
welcome to mst_children. this is a test. hence the name.